The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland in the neck, and consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is found at the front of the neck. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which primarily influence the metabolic rate and protein synthesis. The hormones also have many other effects including those on development.
The thyroid,hormones T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine.
Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from the anterior pituitary produced by the hypothalamus.
Types of thyroid
Hypothyroidism: iodine deficiency in the blood leads to this condition.other causes like heriditory,stress and lots of hormonal variation during pregnancy may also leads to hypothyroidism. It is usually noticed that hypothyroidism affects women more than men and gets worse as one ages.
Hyperthyroidism: In this condition there is an overdrive of the thyroid hormone in the blood due to an over active thyroid gland that secretes the hormones in abundance.
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms and signs of the condition can vary from person to person depending on the severity of the condition.
Some of the common symptoms of hypothyroidism are:
• Extreme fatigue
• Forgetfulness and confusion in thought process
• Feeling cold all the time
• Dry skin
• Bloating or fluid retention in the body
• Stiffness in joints and muscles along with aches and pains
• Menorrhagia, excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding
Some of the common symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:
• Sweating profusely
• Intolerance to heat
• Increased bowel movements
• Slight tremor in the limbs
• Rapid heart rate
• Unexplained weight loss
• Excessive fatigue
• Concentration problem
• Irregular menstrual cycle
• It can lead to irregular heart rhythms and even heart failure in the elderly.
• Untreated hyperthyroidism may result in condition called thyroid storm, where a person can suffer from high blood pressure, fever leading to a heart failure.
• In Graves’ disease, there may be eye changes and skin changes in addition to the other symptoms.
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